Personal Exposures and Cardiopulmonary Responses of Children Riding Diesel Powered School Buses
Web Address: http://www.clarkson.edu/cee/facilities.html
This material is based upon work supported by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency under Award Number EPA 05 X-83232501-0.
The primary focus of this pilot study is to develop a set of measurement parameters to better estimate important exposure conditions for children riding diesel buses to school. To test that childrens exposures to DPM and its constituents depend on seating location when windows are closed for individual buses, we aim to spatially measure the self-pollution of buses "in-cab", using a tracer gas and known DPM constituents. To test whether acute exposures of DPM in children riding buses are more greatly associated with corresponding changes in cardiopulmonary measurements than those who commute by other means, we plan to continuously measure HRV and lung function with the LifeShirt; and for pulmonary inflammation, pre- and post- exposures of NO from exhaled breath condensate using an RTube. To test that predicted inhaled exposures from empirical respiratory are more highly correlated with cardiopulmonary effects than the PM data alone, a lung deposition model will incorporate respiration via the Lifeshirt, and personal PM exposures. Finally, predicted inhaled deposition patterns will be correlated with each child's HRV lung function, and NO. We expect the predicted values, based on breathing rates, to be better estimates of exposure associated effects, since individual's breathing varies greatly.
Predicted inhaled deposition patterns will be correlated with each child's HRV lung function, and NO. We expect the predicted values, based on breathing rates, to be better estimates of exposure associated effects, since individual's breathing varies greatly.
PHASE I: EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT/BUS CHARACTERIZATION
This study developed measurement techniques to provide information on the location and distribution of pollution within a bus, as well as concentrations and particle sizes. Using this information testing was conducted for filters that re-route emissions back to the engine.
Phase II: PERSONAL EXPOSURES/CARDIOPULMONARY EFFECTS
In this phase, health measures were completed for 14 children. Measurements revealed negative health effects included pulmonary inflammation. Application of the Lifeshirt provided data suggesting possible increases and decreases in Heart Rate Variability during a bus ride.
The application of these techniques and measurements will allow a better understanding of the health impacts to children from diesel pollution, and ways to mitigate them through new bus designs and retrofits to existing buses.
An Example of Spatial Measuements taken during the project.
Image Credit: Peter A. Jaques, Clarkson University.
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